The Static mixer for the cavitation of water

What is a Solari ZPM ?

ZPM stands for ‘ Zeta Potential Mixer ‘ ZPM‘s are static mixers for the injection of products such as APF, ACO or NoPhos and for the cavitation of water. They are manufactured in stainless steel for freshwater and in titanium or plastic for marine applications. The ZPM is flanged into the pipework, the water is made to cavitate and spin at high speed which helps to kill parasites. The ZPM also helps to drop the zeta potential of the water, this causes flocculation of solids and increases the redox oxidation potential at the same time; the water is becoming self sterilising.

Nano-bubble implosion process

The water molecules are pulled apart by the cavitation reactions which creates nano-bubbles these help disinfect the water. The greater the pressure differential across a ZPM, the stronger the cavitation reactions.

No energy is lost through this reaction as it is returned to the water in the form of heat.

Micro/Ultrafine (Nano) bubbles

Solari ZPM generates Micro/Ultrafine (Nano) bubbles that have a high degree of stability and are attracted to the surface of particles such as;  viruses, bacteria, fungal spores and protozoa or the surface of organic molecules. On touching a solid surface, the localised pressure is 2000 bar and temperatures up to 3000 °C are generated. 

The Nano-bubbles collapse to release energy directly onto the cell membranes. This has the effect of disinfecting the water without the use of chemicals. When a Nano-bubble collapses on an organic molecule, the energy released will oxidise the molecule. Any Nano-bubbles that do not collapse will auto destruct after a few seconds. 

How Does The Solari ZPM Work?

Installed upstream of the filter to optimise coagulation and flocculation

The ZPM amplifies the coagulation and flocculation reactions for the conversion and precipitation of dissolved components into small particles. The cavitation reactions provide the perfect mixing and turbulent environment necessary. The ZPM neutralizes the electrical charge (Zeta Potential) on dissolved chemicals and small particles to make some positively and some negatively charged. The opposite charges attract, and this causes coagulation and flocculation. As the electrical potential drops to neutral, the redox oxidation potential of the water increases by up to 100 mV, effectively the water is beginning to disinfect itself without any chemicals.

Installation downstream of the filter: Mechanical disinfection and barrier against bacteria

The nano-bubbles created by the cavitation are of most use here. They will be attracted to the surface of solids such as bacteria, viruses, spores and protozoa. Nano-bubbles adhere to the surface, where they then implode. The energy released blows a hole through the cell membrane of the pathogen. The bacteria or parasite will be killed, or the hole formed allows chlorine to enter.

Bacteria and other pathogens are incubated on the surface of sand in the sand filters, on the walls of the balance tank and any surface in contact with the water. The slippery surface on tiles is not body-fat but a thin invisible film of bacteria. Some pathogens (e.g. Cryptosporidium) as well as biofilm protected colonies of bacteria are extremely resistant to chlorine. The ZPM breaks these colonies apart and allows chlorine to disinfect the water before the water reaches the pool. Bacterial flocs can survive for a few minutes to several hours, bacteria from ZPM shattered flocs can only survive for about 30 seconds.

Your benefits at a glance:


✔ Small investment

✔ No power required

✔ No operating and maintenance costs

✔ Injection point for coagulants, flocculants & biocides.

✔ Amplifies the performance of coagulation reactions to remove 50% more organics

✔ Kills cryptosporidium oocysts, protozoa and nematodes or renders them open to oxidation

✔ Reduces biocide consumption by up to 25%

✔ Reduce pH correction chemicals by up to 25%

Breaks up bacteria floc. and amplifies performance of disinfectants such as chlorine.


Safety barrier against pathogens

The ZPM after the filter mechanically smashes cryptosporidium oocysts, bacteria floc and even single bacteria. The water is mechanically disinfected and the performance of chlorine is amplified

Best water quality

The ZPM before the filter amplifies coagulation and flocculation reactions of APF and NoPhos to improve the filtration performance of AFM® and reduce chlorine consumption.

Self Sterilizing Water

Every surface in contact with the water develops a high zeta potential and becomes self-cleaning & sterilizing.

How To Use Solari ZPM

The greater the pressure differential across the ZPM, the more powerful the cavitation reactions. The ZPM before the filter should be electrically earthed to allow the electrons rubbed-off to go to ground. The ZPM before the filter should be chosen to have a pressure drop not exceeding 0.3 bar for filters running at 30 m/hr. It should still be possible to back-wash the filters at 40 – 50 m/hr by pumping the water through the ZPM. If the flow rate is compromised, a by-pass around the ZPM may be required to achieve the required back-wash water flow.

The ZPM after the filter should be sized to give a pressure drop between 0.3 and 0.5 bar, a higher pressure drop increases cavitation reactions and improves disinfection. A pressure drop of 0.5 bar will disinfect the water and help chlorine to kill bacteria and parasites before the water is returned back to the pool.

Rule of thumb for private pools:

filter piping 2“= > ZPM upstream of the filter should be 2“ with 2 fins and downstream of the filter 2” with 3 fins.

DAISY filter circulation for private pools

Water Becomes Self Sterilizing

The zeta potential of the water is shifted into a high negative state, this drops the water surface tension and makes it extremely difficult for bacteria to survive in the water, yet there are no chemicals in the water.

The system has changed the way water molecules relate to each other, also referred to as the hydrogen bonding.  Every surface in contact with the water develops a high zeta potential and becomes self-cleaning & sterilising.

Disease Control and Endotoxins

The ZPM amplifies coagulation and flocculation reactions to make the suspended solids larger and easier to remove by the filters.  A ZPM unit should always be used prior to mechanical filters as an injection point for coagulants. Continuous coagulation and flocculation must be used to ensure physical removal of cryptosporidium oocysts, giardia, nematodes and dissolved organics.

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